Vanilla minecraft 2 types of enchantment. Normal, and Curse. However, EcoEnchants expands on this model.
There are 5 types of enchantment in EcoEnchants.
Normal enchantments are very straightforward. They generally improve and item and make it stronger.
Curse enchantments are also simple. They generally worsen the item and make it weaker.
Artifact enchantments are slightly different. They don't make the item any more powerful - they are purely cosmetic. They work on Elytra, creating a trail behind each wing, on Swords and Axes, spiraling particles around the victim, on Bows, Crossbows and Tridents, creating a particle trail behind the projectile, and on Pickaxes, creating particles when breaking ores. An item can only have one Artifact enchantment on it at the same time.
Special enchantments are like normal enchantments, however they are extremely powerful. To combat this, they are extremely rare and you can only have one special enchantment on any item. This forces players to specialize their items and focus them on a specific trait.
Spell enchantments are like abilities. You can right-click while holding an item with a spell to activate it, and then there is a cooldown thereafter.